بانک مقالات و کتب دکتر رضا مکنون
Morteza Nikravan, Ali Akbar Ramezanianpour, Reza Maknoon
In: Journal of Environmental Management, ۲۶۰ , pp. 110042, ۲۰۲۱.
Generally, Fly ashes (FAs) in Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) are classified as hazardous waste and commonly managed in a mixed way even though distinct FA in incineration flows have different characteristics. Thus, it can cause improper management of fly ashes and an increase in cost as well as the volume of residual ashes sent to the hazardous landfill. In this study, Bottom ash (BA), Secondary furnace ash (SFA), Superheater ash (SHA), Boiler chamber ash (BCA), Economizer ash (EA), and Baghouse Filter Ash (BHFA) have been sampled separately from different locations at an MSWI plant. An integrated approach involving physical, chemical, mineralogy, and leaching behavior was used to characterize the residual ashes. Results point out that the average diameter of ash particles varies from 4.87 μm for BHFA to 6825 μm for BA, with three distinct zones. The Blaine fineness value increases when the median size of ash particles decreases. All values of Loss on Ignition (LOI) at 550 °C are less than 3%, indicating a suitable burning. The main mineralogical crystalline phases in ashes were KCl, NaCl, Mg.6Al1.2Si1.8O6, CaCO3, CaSO4, CaSO3, and SiO2. Among the considered heavy metals, leaching tests identified high levels of hazardous waste for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in BHFA as well as for Pb and Zn in SHA. BA, SFA, BCA, and EA are categorized as non-hazardous according to the TCLP (USEPA-1311). In terms of EN 12457-2 test, BA and SFA are inert waste; but SHA, BCA, and EA are classified as hazardous waste due to a significant level of Cl. The results show that the characteristics of ash in the separate location of the MSWI process is essential to have an economical and proper solution for ash management.
Kiarash Farzad, Babak Khorsandi, Maziar Khorsandi, Omar Bouamra, Reza Maknoon
In: Science of The Total Environment, ۷۲۵ , pp. 138422, ۲۰۲۰.
Mohammadhassan Hassani, Behrouz Behnam, Reza Maknoon
In: Computers and Concrete, ۲۵ , pp. 167-179, ۲۰۲۰.
Optimal design of structures against earthquake loads is often limited to reduce initial construction costs, while the cost induced to structures during their useful life may be several times greater than the initial costs. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the indirect costs due to earthquakes in the design process. In this research, an integrated methodology for calculating life cycle cost (LCC) of moment-resisting concrete frames is presented. Increasing seismic safety of structures and reducing human casualties can play an important role in determining the optimal design. Costs incurred for structures are added to the costs of construction, including the costs of reconstruction, financial losses due to the time spent on reconstruction, interruption in building functionality, the value of people’s life or disability, and content loss are a major part of the future costs. In this research, fifty years of useful life of structures from the beginning of the construction is considered as the life cycle. These costs should be considered as factors of calculating indirect costs of a structure. The results of this work represent the life cycle cost of a 4 story, 7 story, and 10 story moment-resisting concrete frame by details. This methodology is developed based on the economic conditions of Iran in 2016 and for the case of Tehran city.
Navid Hosseini, Saeed Givehchi, Reza Maknoon
In: Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, ۶۳ , pp. 104025, ۲۰۲۰.
Fire is the most prevalent accident in natural gas facilities. In order to assess the risk of fire in a gas processing plant, a fault tree analysis (FTA) and event tree analysis (ETA) has been developed in this paper. By utilizing FTA and ETA, the paths leading to an outcome event would be visually demonstrated. The framework was applied to a case study of processing plant in South Pars gas complex. All major underlying causes of fire accident in a gas processing facility determined through a process hazard analysis (PHA). Fuzzy logic has been employed to derive likelihood of basic events in FTA from uncertain opinion of experts. The outcome events in event tree has been simulated by computer model to evaluate their severity. In the proposed methodology the calculated risk has the unit of cost per year which allows the decision makers to discern the benefit of their investment in safety measures and risk mitigation.
Ahmad Abrishamchi, Ali Asghar Moonesan, Reza Maknoon
In: Scientia Iranica, ۲۰۱۹.
This paper aims to propose a framework by which decision-makers can evaluate and compare alternatives for sustainable island-based tourism development. The uncertainties and risks involved in information and judgment within the evaluation process are taken into account by using a hybrid approach, which combines the Delphi method, fuzzy set theory, and a discrete multi-criteria method based on prospect theory called TODIM (an acronym in Portuguese of interactive and multiple criteria decision making). The decision making model examines three different techniques of aggregating the viewpoints of different decision-makers and explores how the aggregation technique affects the ranking of the alternatives. To demonstrate the potential application of the proposed approach, it is examined for development of Hendourabi Island (Iran) for tourism. Results show that among the three development alternative plans, decision-makers prefer the medium-size development alternative, since it offers a balance between benefits of tourism market and costs of project development under an uncertain future. It also allows for adaptive management. Results also showed that the proposed approach which reduces loss regret in decision-making under uncertain future can be used effectively for planning the island development under an uncertain dynamic future considering the risk and uncertainty associated with human judgment.
Mehdi Esmaeili Bidhendi, Zeinab Asadi, Alireza Bozorgian, Ahmad Shahhoseini, Mohammad Ali Gabris, Syed Shahabuddin, Rashmin Khanam, Rahman Saidur
https://aiche.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ep.13306 Journal Article
In: Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, ۳۹ , pp. 13306, ۲۰۱۹.
In the present study, a new nanocomposite of iron/cobalt oxides and magnetic nanoparticle doped with polyaniline (PANI‐Co 3O 4@MNPs) was synthesized and subsequently, evaluated for its potential in decontaminating nitrate ions from ground water. Various important parameters such as pH, mass dosage, adsorption time, initial concentration, and temperature were experimentally investigated. The important surface and chemical properties of PANI‐Co 3O 4@MNPs, such as surface morphology and roughness, composition and chemical structure were evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy‐dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared. Finally, the removal of nitrate was assessed using kinetic, adsorption isotherm, and thermodynamic studies to investigate the underlying mechanism of the removal process. Maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 68.96 mg/g for nitrate ions at pH ۶, adsorbent dosage 60 mg within 60 min. The kinetic studies and the adsorption isotherms have been well fitted using pseudo first and the Freundlich models respectively whereas the thermodynamic parameters have been described in terms of enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy which showed a negative value signifying that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous in nature.
Jalil Salimi, Reza Maknoon, Sander Meijerink
In: water alternatives, ۱۲ , pp. 609-635 , ۲۰۱۹.
One of the prescriptions of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is to organise water resources management on a watershed or basin scale, which usually involves the establishment of special-purpose organisations. This paper contributes to the discussion on the functioning of these organisations and, more specifically, on the relationship between their institutional design and their performance. An in-depth case study of the Urmia Lake Restoration National Committee (ULRNC) in Iran reveals that the committee has been successful in drafting ambitious plans and policies for restoring Urmia Lake. However, there is a serious risk of implementation failure due to contradictory national policy agendas of lake restoration and agricultural development, insufficient budget allocation for realising the restoration plan, lack of provincial accountability for the spending of resources made available for the implementation of restoration measures, and potential future political instability which may lead to less attention to the restoration process.
Abbas Jorsaraei Talar, Taghi Ebadi, Reza Maknoon, Alimorad Rashidi
In: Process Safety and Environmental Protection, ۱۲۵ , pp. 31-38, ۲۰۱۹.
In this research work, following the efforts for providing fresh water for humans, a novel nanocomposite membrane was prepared. In this regard, potassium cation was added to co-polymerized graphene oxide (GO) to tune the interlayer spacing of the GO nanosheets. The prepared membranes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, contact angle measurement, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The XRD patterns confirmed that by adding potassium chloride (KCl) to GO containing membranes, interlayer spacing was optimized and led to presence of interlayer spacing in the range of 4–۶ Å and 7.80 Å which are highly active in rejection of salt ions. To evaluate the desalination performance of the prepared nanocomposite membranes, forward osmosis (FO) process was considered. The results showed that although the membrane showed acceptable permeability, the salt rejection activity was enhanced considerably. The potassium cation containing membrane exhibited reverse salt rejection of 2.03 which was 6.31 in absence of it. This can be attributed to effect of potassium cations in optimizing and modifying interlayer spacing along with repulsion of Na+ due to charge similarity with K+.
Abbas Jorsaraei Talar, Taghi Ebadi, Reza Maknoon, Alimorad Rashidi
In: DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT, ۱۴۷ , pp. 135-142, ۲۰۱۹.
Freshwater is indeed the main need of humans which can be prepared from saline water sources.
Herein, in order to prepare an optimized nanocomposite membrane, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets
were cross-linked by N-isopropylacryl amide (NIPAM) and N,N-methylenebis (acrylamide)
monomers in the presence of ammonium persulfate. In following, the cross-linked GO which had
lower spacing between nanosheets and higher hydrophilicity, was spin coated on nylon substrate
with two different pore sizes. During the synthesis procedure, effects of factors including pore size
of nylon substrate, GO loading%, and draw solution concentration on desalination performance were
studied. To characterize the prepared samples, FESEM, AFM, and X-ray diffraction methods were
used. Desalination performance of the membranes was studied through forward osmosis and dead
end processes. The results showed that by increasing the GO loading, desalination performance is
enhanced. Furthermore, it was observed that the nylon substrates possessing larger pores are more
suitable for desalination of draw solutions with higher NaCl concentration. The significantly better
desalination performance of the GO cross-linked nanocomposite on nylon can be attributed to its
optimized interlayer spacing and higher hydrophilicity.
jalil salimi, Reza Maknoon
In: IRAN-WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, ۱۴ (۴), pp. 45-49, ۲۰۱۹.
The Urmia Lake shrinkage is the most noticeable symbol of the water and water management crisis in Iran. In order to cope with this crisis at the highest national level with the membership of all governmental actors, the Urmia Lake Restoration National Committee (ULRNC) has been formed and they have ratified a roadmap for the Lake restoration. The implementation of this road map and the restoration process requires extensive changes in the previous procedures and adaptation to the new conditions. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the capacity of ULRNC for implementing these changes and adapting with new climate. In the modern literature of water resource management, the ability to change internally is called adaptive capacity. This paper seeks to measure the adaptive capacity of the ULRNC, and for this aim, it uses the Adaption Capacity Wheel model. This model has 6 dimensions and 22 criteria. It measures the capability of change and the capacity of adaption in formal and informal water institutions. The results of this paper indicate the low capacity of this institution to change current procedures and adapt to new conditions.